# NZSQL Tips for New Netezza Users

Just like any SQL dialect, NZSQL has some quirks and odd conventions which could be really confusing to new Netezza users. This post has some tips for those new users.

• By default, identifiers are treated as UPPERCASE, even if you type them as LOWERCASE. So, for example, these create statements:

are equivalent to:

The same is true for SELECT statements. These two SQL statements:

are equivalent to:

• The best practice is that you should never care or override the above default behavior: your identifiers should be case-insensitive. Unfortunately, if you have to override the above default behavior, then you must surround the identifier with double-quotes whenever you reference it. For example, if you create a table using this statement:

then you must reference the identifiers by surrounding them with double-quotes. For example:

• The most perplexing feature for new Netezza users when reading a NZSQL script is probably the “dot dot” notation of database object names, i.e., the two dots in my_dwh..companies. It is simply the short-hand notation for database object names, database-name..object-name. The fully qualified form of object names in Netezza has three-level as database-name.schema.object-name. One example of using such notation is shown below: